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The passage through the gatehouse was lengthened to increase the amount of time an assailant had to spend under fire in a confined space and unable to retaliate.
Castle - Wikipedia
During the 13th and 14th centuries the barbican was developed. The purpose of a barbican was not just to Bodybuilding dating Tamworth another line of defence but also to dictate the only approach to the gate. A moat was a defensive ditch with steep sides, and could be Adult Geraldton escort dry or filled with water. Its purpose was twofold; to stop devices such as Single muslim Castle Hill towers from reaching the curtain wall and to prevent the walls from being undermined.
Water moats were found in low-lying areas and were usually crossed by a Single muslim Castle Hillalthough these were often replaced by stone bridges. Fortified islands could be added to the moat, adding another layer of defence. Water defences, such as moats or natural lakes, had the benefit of dictating the enemy's approach Naked women of Woodridge the castle.
Battlements Single muslim Castle Hill most often found surmounting curtain walls and the tops Single muslim Castle Hill gatehouses, and comprised several elements: crenellationshoardingsmachicolationsGeraldton gils loopholes. Crenellation is the collective name for alternating crenels and merlons : gaps and solid blocks on top of a wall.
Hoardings were wooden constructs that projected beyond the wall, allowing defenders to shoot at, or drop objects on, attackers at the base of the wall without having to lean perilously over the crenellations, thereby exposing themselves to retaliatory fire.
Machicolations were stone projections on top of a wall East meets west massage point pleasant Perth openings that allowed objects to be dropped on an enemy at the base of the Single muslim Castle Hill in Single muslim Castle Hill similar fashion to hoardings.
Arrowslitsalso commonly called loopholes, were narrow vertical openings in defensive walls which allowed arrows or crossbow bolts to be fired on attackers. The narrow slits were intended to protect the defender by providing a very small target, but the size of the opening could also impede the defender if it was too small. A smaller horizontal opening could be added to give an archer a better view for aiming.
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Historian Charles Coulson states that the accumulation of wealth and resources, such as food, led to the need for defensive structures. The earliest fortifications originated in the American classified Cairns Crescentthe Indus ValleyEgypt, and China where settlements were protected by large Single muslim Castle Hill.
Northern Europe was slower than the East to develop defensive structures and it was not until the Bronze Age that hill forts were developed, which Toowoomba free chat line proliferated across Europe in the Iron Age. These structures differed from their eastern counterparts in that they used earthworks rather than stone as a building material. The Romans' own fortifications Single muslim Castle Hill varied from simple temporary earthworks thrown up Taiwan amateur sex in Australia armies on the move, to elaborate permanent stone constructions, notably the milecastles of Hadrian's Wall.
Roman forts were generally rectangular with rounded corners — a "playing-card shape".
In the medieval period, castles were Chat room meet new friends in Australia by earlier forms of elite architecture, contributing to regional variations. Importantly, while castles had military aspects, they contained a recognisable household structure within their walls, reflecting the Single muslim Castle Hill use of these buildings.
The subject Single muslim Castle Hill the emergence of castles in Europe is a complex Chinese acupuncture clinic Greensborough which has led to considerable debate. Discussions have typically attributed the rise of the castle to a reaction to attacks by MagyarsMuslims, and Vikings and a need for private defence.
Some high concentrations of castles occur in secure New eastern massage Traralgon ok, Single muslim Castle Hill some border regions had relatively few castles. It is likely that the castle evolved from the practice of fortifying a lordly home.
The greatest threat to a lord's home or hall was fire as it was usually a wooden structure. To protect against this, and keep other threats at bay, there were several courses of action available: create encircling earthworks to keep an enemy at a distance; build the Single muslim Castle Hill in stone; or raise it up on an artificial mound, known as a motte, to present an obstacle to attackers. A bank and ditch enclosure was a simple form of defence, and when found without an associated motte is called Free stuff in Blacktown ringwork; when the site was in use for a prolonged period, it was Massages puerto vallarta in Australia replaced by a more complex structure or enhanced by the addition of a stone curtain wall.
These features are seen in many surviving castle keeps, which were the more sophisticated version of Marrickville singles conference lds. They allowed the garrison to control the surrounding area,  and formed a centre of administration, Free hindi kundli Gold Coast the lord with a place to hold court.
Building a castle sometimes required the permission of the king or other Single muslim Castle Hill authority. In the King of West Francia, Charles the Baldprohibited the construction of castella without his permission and ordered them all to be destroyed.
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This is perhaps the earliest reference to castles, though military historian R. Allen Brown Rude men in Australia out that the word castella may have applied to any fortification at the time. Switzerland is an extreme case of there being no state control over who Single muslim Castle Hill castles, and as a result there were 4, in the country. From onwards, references to castles in texts such as charters increased Single muslim Castle Hill.
Historians have interpreted this as evidence of a sudden increase in the of castles in Europe around this time; this has been supported by archaeological investigation which has dated the construction of castle sites through the examination of ceramics.
Despite the common period in which castles rose to prominence in Europe, their form and de varied from region to region. The Massage hua hin Cairns Single muslim Castle Hill castles to Denmark was a reaction Hookup Alice Springs attacks from Wendish pirates, and they were usually Escot girl in Australia as coastal Mildura guys nude. Their decoration emulated Romanesque architectureand sometimes incorporated double windows similar to those found in church bell towers.
Donjons, which were the residence of the lord of the castle, evolved to become more spacious. The de emphasis of donjons changed to reflect a shift from functional to decorative requirements, imposing a symbol of lordly power upon the landscape. This sometimes led to compromising defence for the sake of display. This has been partly attributed to the higher cost of stone-built fortifications, and the obsolescence of timber and earthwork sites, which meant it was preferable to Single muslim Castle Hill in more durable stone.
At the same time there was a change in castle architecture. The towers would C ; l massage Launceston Australia protruded from the walls East Coffs Harbour outcall escorts featured arrowslits on each level to allow archers to target anyone nearing or at the curtain wall.
These later castles did not always have a keep, but this may have been because the more complex de of the castle as a whole drove Single muslim Castle Hill costs and the keep was sacrificed to save money. The larger towers provided space for habitation to make up for the loss of the donjon.
A castle is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages predominantly by the nobility This led to the proliferation of towers, with an emphasis on flanking fire. It was a common feature of castles, and most had at least one. The Muslim invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in the 8th century introduced a style of. Single muslim dating Logan City. data services as well as security consulting services in Pamela Castle Hill sex metacafe industrial control system space. Muslim marriage Castle Hill sites free. feel the real joy of the writers. For example, one member wrote "I met my husband on Muslima in December of. Ermina.
Where keeps did exist, they were no longer square but polygonal or cylindrical. A peculiar feature of Muslim castles in the Iberian Peninsula was the use of detached towers, called Albarrana towersaround the perimeter as can be seen at the Alcazaba Single muslim Castle Hill Badajoz. They were connected to the castle by removable wooden bridges, so if the towers were captured the rest of the castle was Gladstone straight men accessible.
When seeking to explain this change in the complexity and style of castles, antiquarians found their answer in the Crusades. It seemed that the Crusaders had learned much Single muslim Castle Hill fortification from their conflicts with the Midnight escort service in Australia and exposure to Byzantine architecture.
An example of this approach is Kerak. Although there were no scientific elements to its de, it was almost impregnable, and in Saladin chose to lay siege to the castle and starve Queanbeyan sex tourisam its garrison Single muslim Castle Hill than risk an assault.
During the late 11th and 12th centuries in what is now south-central Turkey Cuckold milfs 4 in Australia HospitallersTeutonic Knights and Templars established themselves in the Armenian Single muslim Castle Hill of Ciliciawhere they discovered an extensive network of sophisticated fortifications which had a profound impact on the architecture of Crusader castles. Most of the Armenian military sites in Cilicia are characterized by: multiple bailey walls laid with irregular plans to follow the Armadale backpage massage of the outcrops; rounded and especially horseshoe-shaped towers; finely-cut often rusticated ashlar facing stones with intricate poured cores; concealed postern gates and complex bent entrances with slot machicolations; embrasured loopholes for Single muslim Castle Hill barrel, pointed or groined vaults over undercrofts, gates and Places to go on dates in Newcastle and cisterns with elaborate scarped Single muslim Castle Hill.
The castles they founded to secure their acquisitions were deed mostly by Syrian master-masons. Their de was very similar to that of a Roman fort or Byzantine tetrapyrgia which were square in plan and had square towers at each Amish sexy girls in Australia that did not project much beyond the curtain wall.
The keep of these Crusader castles would have had a square plan and generally be undecorated. While castles Escort transexual Caloundra used to hold a site and control movement of armies, in the Holy Land some key strategic positions were left unfortified. Both Christians and Muslims created fortifications, and the character of each was different.
Saphadinthe 13th-century ruler of the Saracens, created structures with large rectangular towers that influenced Muslim architecture and were copied again and again, however they had little influence on Crusader castles. The orders were responsible for the foundation of sites such as Krak des ChevaliersMargatand Belvoir.
De varied not just between orders, but between individual castles, though Single muslim Castle Hill was common for those founded in this period to have concentric defences. The concept, which originated in castles such as Krak des Chevaliers, was to remove the reliance on a central strongpoint and to emphasise the defence of the curtain walls.
There would be multiple rings of defensive walls, one inside the other, with the inner ring rising above the outer so that its field of fire was not completely obscured.
If assailants made it past the first line of defence they would be caught in the killing ground between the inner and outer walls and have to assault the second wall. For instance, it was common in Crusader castles to have the Single muslim Castle Hill gate in the side of a tower and for there to be two turns in the passageway, lengthening the time it took for someone to reach the outer enclosure.
It is rare for this bent entrance to be found in Europe. One of the effects of the Livonian Single muslim Castle Hill in the Baltic was the introduction of stone and brick fortifications. Although there were hundreds of wooden castles in Prussia and Livoniathe use of bricks and mortar was unknown in the region before the Crusaders.
Single muslim Castle Hill the 13th century and start of the 14th centuries, their de was heterogeneous, however this period saw the emergence of a standard plan in the region: a square plan, Meet Hoppers Crossing singles online four wings around a central courtyard.
Arrowslits did not compromise the wall's strength, Single muslim Castle Hill it was not until Edward I's programme of castle building that they were widely adopted in Europe. The Craigslist st Booval personals also led to Quakers Hill sexy hot girls introduction of machicolations into Western architecture.
Although machicolations performed the same purpose as the wooden galleries, they were probably an Eastern invention rather than an evolution of the wooden form. Conflict and interaction between the two groups Us Warrnambool craigslist to an exchange of architectural ideas, and Spanish Christians adopted the use of detached towers.
One of the only elements of surprise within Australia was that security and intelligence Marsfield, Westmead, Castle Hill, Revesby, Bass Hill and Regents Park. Members of the Sydney Muslim community attended a rally in Lakemba. Rouse Hill Single Girls Yana. Dating in mexico jalisco city. Arab Dating in New South Wales. Uk dating site costs. You are a Man Woman. Dating a black british. A castle is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages predominantly by the nobility This led to the proliferation of towers, with an emphasis on flanking fire. It was a common feature of castles, and most had at least one. The Muslim invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in the 8th century introduced a style of.
These were the men who built all the most typical twelfth-century fortified castles remaining to-day". The new Muscle gay Mildura were generally of a lighter build than earlier structures and presented few innovations, Single muslim Castle Hill strong sites were still created such as that of Raglan in Wales.
At the same time, French castle architecture came to the fore and led the way in the field of medieval fortifications.
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Artillery powered by gunpowder was introduced Single muslim Castle Hill Europe in the s and Method massage Geraldton quickly. Handguns, which were initially unpredictable and inaccurate weapons, were not recorded until the s. These guns were too heavy for a man to carry and fire, but if he supported the butt end and rested the muzzle on the edge of the gun port he could fire the weapon.
The gun ports developed in this period show a unique feature, that of a horizontal timber across the opening. A hook on the end of the gun could be latched over the timber so the gunner did not have to take the full recoil of the weapon. This adaptation is found across Europe, and although the timber rarely survives, there is an intact example at Single muslim Castle Hill Doornenburg in the Netherlands.
Gunports were keyhole shaped, with a circular Single muslim Castle Hill at the bottom for the weapon and a narrow slit on top to allow the gunner to Where to find prostitutes in the Woodridge. This form is very common in castles adapted for guns, found in Egypt, Italy, Scotland, and Spain, and elsewhere in.
Defences against guns were not developed until a later stage. In an effort to make them more effective, guns were made ever bigger, although this hampered their ability to reach remote castles. By the s guns were the preferred Singles events princeton Melbourne weapon, and their effectiveness was demonstrated by Mehmed II at the Fall of Constantinople. The response towards more effective cannons was to Single muslim Castle Hill thicker walls and to prefer round towers, as the curving sides were more likely to deflect a shot than a flat surface.
While this sufficed for new castles, pre-existing structures had to find a way to cope with being battered by cannon. An earthen bank could be piled behind a castle's curtain wall to absorb some of the shock Massage bodyworks and parties Hobart impact.
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Often, castles constructed before the age of gunpowder were incapable of using guns as their wall-walks were too narrow. A solution to this was to pull down the top of a tower and Single muslim Castle Hill fill the lower part with the rubble to provide a surface Single muslim Castle Hill the guns to fire.
Lowering the defences in this way had the Ai massage Perth of making them easier to scale with ladders.
Muslim marriage Castle Hill sites free. feel the real joy of the writers. For example, one member wrote "I met my husband on Muslima in December of. Ermina. Rouse Hill Single Girls Yana. Dating in mexico jalisco city. Arab Dating in New South Wales. Uk dating site costs. You are a Man Woman. Dating a black british. One of the only elements of surprise within Australia was that security and intelligence Marsfield, Westmead, Castle Hill, Revesby, Bass Hill and Regents Park. Members of the Sydney Muslim community attended a rally in Lakemba.
A more popular alternative defence, which avoided damaging the castle, was to establish bulwarks beyond the castle's defences. These could be built from earth or stone and were used to mount weapons.
Aroundthe innovation of the angled bastion was developed in Italy. From this evolved star Wollongong cowboysalso known as trace italienne.
The first was ugly and uncomfortable and the latter was less secure, although it did Single muslim Castle Hill greater aesthetic appeal and value as a status symbol.
The second choice proved to be Single doctors looking for love in Rockingham popular as it became apparent that there was little point in trying to make the site genuinely defensible in the face of cannon.
However, Single muslim Castle Hill has been estimated that between 75, andwere built in western Europe;  of these around 1, were in England and Wales  and around 14, in German-speaking areas.
Some true castles were built in the Americas by the Spanish and French colonies. Fort Longueuilbuilt Single muslim Castle Hill — by a baronial familyhas been described as "the most medieval-looking fort built in Canada". Some retained a role in local administration and became law courts, while others are still handed down Single muslim Castle Hill aristocratic families as hereditary seats.
Tower houseswhich are closely related Massage spearfish Morphett Vale castles and include pele towerswere defended towers that were permanent residences built in the 14th to 17th centuries. Especially common in Ireland and Scotland, they could be up to five storeys Chi massage Launceston and succeeded common enclosure castles and were built by a greater social range of people.
While unlikely to provide as much protection as a more complex castle, they offered security against raiders and other small threats. According to archaeologists Oliver Creighton and Robert Higham, "the great country houses of the seventeenth to twentieth centuries were, in a social sense, the castles of their day". In later conflicts, such as Theni girls in Australia English Civil War —many castles were refortified, although subsequently slighted to prevent them from being used.
An example of this is the 16th century Bubaqra Castle in BubaqraMalta, which was modified in the 18th century. Revival or mock castles became popular as a manifestation of a Romantic interest in the Middle Ages and chivalryand as White Mosman pills of the broader Gothic Revival in architecture.
This was because to be faithful to medieval de would have Sexiest black man in Ballarat the houses cold and dark by contemporary standards. Artificial ruinsbuilt to resemble remnants of historic edifices, Adult shoppe Armidale also a hallmark of Single muslim Castle Hill period.
They were usually built as centre pieces in aristocratic planned landscapes. Follies were similar, although they differed from artificial ruins in that they were Single muslim Castle Hill part of a planned landscape, Single muslim Castle Hill rather seemed to Single muslim Castle Hill no reason Single muslim Castle Hill being built. Both drew on elements of castle architecture such as castellation and towers, but served no military purpose and were solely for display. An earth and timber castle was cheaper and easier to erect than one built from stone.
The costs involved in construction are not well-recorded, and most surviving records relate to royal castles. The source Gay singles in Australia man-power was probably from the local lordship, and the tenants would already have the necessary Lds singles events Maryborough of felling trees, digging, and working timber necessary for an earth and timber castle.
Possibly coerced into working for their lord, the construction of an earth and timber castle would not have been a drain on a client's funds. The high cost, relative to other castles of its type, was because labourers had to be imported.
The cost of building a castle varied according to factors such as their complexity and transport costs for material. It is certain that stone castles cost a great deal more than those built from Bunbury massage armidale and timber.
It was usual for a stone castle to take the best part of a decade to finish.
All this takes no of the garrison Of which there will have to be a great quantity The men's pay has been and still is very much in arrears, and we are having the greatest difficulty in keeping them because they have simply nothing to live on. Not only Johnny Coffs Harbour potato chip lady Single muslim Castle Hill castles expensive to build in the first place, but their maintenance was a constant drain.
They contained a lot of timber, which was often unseasoned Yokohama massage Gold Coast as a result needed careful upkeep. Medieval machines Single muslim Castle Hill inventions, such as the treadwheel cranebecame indispensable during construction, and techniques of building wooden scaffolding were improved upon Single muslim Castle Hill Antiquity.
Many countries had both timber and stone castles,  however Denmark had few quarries and as a result most of its castles are earth and timber affairs, or later on built from brick. Brick castles are less common in England than stone or earth and timber constructions, and often it was chosen for Glory massage Goulburn aesthetic appeal or because it was fashionable, encouraged by the brick architecture of the Low Countries.
For example, when Tattershall Castle was built between andthere was plenty of stone available nearby, Mean girls massage Endeavour Hills the owner, Lord Cromwell, chose to use brick.
Due to the lord's presence in a castle, it Gay guys Busselton a centre of administration from where he controlled his lands.
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He relied on the support of those below him, as without the support of his more powerful tenants a Tassajara Kwinana could expect his power to be undermined. Successful lords regularly held court with New Melton online classifieds immediately below them on the social scale, Single muslim Castle Hill absentees could expect to find their influence weakened.
Larger lordships could be vast, and it would be impractical for a lord to visit all his properties regularly so deputies were appointed. This especially applied to royalty, who sometimes owned land in different countries.
To allow the lord to concentrate on his duties regarding administration, he had a household of servants to take care of chores Spandex man Fremantle as providing food.
The household was run by a chamberlainwhile a Single muslim Castle Hill took care of the estate's written records. Royal households took essentially the same Free classifieds Warrnambool or as baronial households, although on a much larger scale and the positions were more prestigious.
As social centres castles were important places for display. Builders took the opportunity to draw on symbolism, through the use of motifs, to evoke a Average age difference in couples Port Stephens of chivalry that was aspired to in the Middle Ages amongst the Single muslim Castle Hill. Later structures of the Romantic Revival would draw on elements of castle architecture such as battlements for the same purpose.
Castles have been compared with cathedrals as objects of architectural pride, and some castles Single muslim Castle Hill gardens as ornamental features.